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Review of Psychoanalytic Theory

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I – Structural Elements

  1. Topographic Model of the Mind:

    There are three levels or types of mental (psychic) activity:

    1. Conscious:

    2. Preconscious:

    3. Unconscious:

  2. The Intrapsychic (Personality) System

    The personality structure consists of three subsystems:

    1. Id

    2. Ego

    3. Superego

II – Motivational Elements

  1. Theories of Instincts:

    There are three levels or types of mental (psychic) activity:

    1. Eros Instincts and Thanatos Instincts.

    2. Deprivation Theory of Motivation.

III – Developmental Elements

  1. The Psychosexual Stages of Development:

    1. Oral stage

    2. Anal stage

    3. Phallic stage

    4. Latency stage

    5. Genital Stage

IV – Psychology of Adjustment and Psychopathology

  1. Theory of Anxiety:

    1. Moral Anxiety

    2. Reality Anxiety

    3. Neurotic Anxiety

  2. Fixation and Regression

    1. Deprivation

    2. Over satisfaction

    3. Trauma

V – The Ego Defense Mechanisms (12 of 25)

  1. Repression

  2. Introjection

  3. Projection

  4. Denial

  5. Compensation

    1. Direct Compensation
    2. Overcompensation
  6. Identification

  7. Rationalization

  8. Displacement

    1. Substitution
    2. Sublimination
  9. Intellectualization

  10. Reaction Formation

  11. Fixation

  12. Regression

Chapter 9: Psychodynamic Views: DEFINITIONS
Anal character: Overly concerned with cleanliness and meticulous orderly and concerned with minute detail
Anal stage: Associated with expelling things, toilet training, and pleasure from controlling the muscles for bodily elimination. The child typically learns distinctions between inside and outside, self and other, and is able to realize a sense of power and control through these distinctions (and also ways to deal with anger and aggression).
Anxiety: Psychiatry A state of apprehension, uncertainty, and fear resulting from the anticipation of a realistic or fantasized threatening event or situation, often impairing physical and psychological functioning.
Castration complex: 1. In psychoanalytic theory, a child’s fear of injury to the genitals by the parent of the same sex as punishment for unconscious guilt over oedipal feelings.

2. An unconscious fear of injury from those in authority.

Cathexis: to be most aware of and attracted to certain objects in the environment; to invest psychic energy in those objects which correspond to the satisfaction of some need within an organism; the id cathects to any object that seems to gratify any need; the Ego invest energy only in real need satisfying objects; and the Superego invest energy in building standards or right-wrong, good-bad, and moral-immoral
Catharsis: A catharsis is an emotional release. According to psychodynamic theory, this emotional release is linked to a need to release unconscious conflicts. For example, experiencing stress over a work-related situation may cause feelings of frustration and tension. Rather than vent these feelings inappropriately, the individual may instead release these feelings in another way, such as through physical activity or another stress relieving activity.
Compensation: An unconscious psychological mechanism by which one tries to make up for imagined or real deficiencies in personality or physical ability.
Conscious: In psychoanalysis, the component of waking awareness perceptible by a person at any given instant.
Conversion hysteria: A disorder involving the loss or alteration of physical functioning, such as paralysis, voice loss, tunnel vision, or seizures, that is the result of a psychological involvement or need rather than a physical illness or disease. Also called conversion hysteria, conversion reaction.
Defense mechanisms The unconscious psychological process that people develop to relieved anxiety.
Ego (Tharney) the second structure of the personality to develop; represents rational thought, memory, etc,: attempts to conform to the Id’s mental images into objective reality; operates on the basis of the Reality Principle by means of secondary process
Eros Life Instincts: (Eros) such needs as hunger, thirst, sex, all of which strive to preserve the individual and continue the species
Fixation: in human psychology refers to the state where an individual becomes obsessed with an attachment to another human, animal or inanimate object.
Free association: A psychoanalytic technique in which a patient verbalizes the passing contents of his or her mind without reservation. The verbalized conflicts that emerge constitute resistances that are the basis of the psychoanalyst’s interpretations.
Freudian slip: A verbal mistake that is thought to reveal an unconscious belief, thought, or emotion.
Genital character The un-neurotic character who does not suffer from sexual stasis and is therefore capable of natural self-regulation.
Genital stage the genital stage is the fifth and final stage of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development that begins during puberty. During this stage, the individual develops a strong interest in the opposite sex. If the other psychosexual stages have been successfully completed, the individual will develop into a well-balanced, warm, and caring adult.
Id (Tharney) the oldest structure of the personality; innate and physiologically based; provides the psychic energy for all three parts of the system; knows only the inner world of subjective experiences; operates on the basis of the Pleasure Principle be means of reflex action and/or primary process
Insight Understanding, especially an understanding of the motives and reasons behind one’s actions.
Intrapsychic conflict A conflict Existing or taking place within the mind or psyche: intrapsychic conflict.
Introjection The process of incorporating the characteristics of a person or object unconsciously into one’s psyche, often as a defense mechanism
Latent content The hidden meaning of a dream, fantasy, or thought that can be revealed through interpretation of its images or through free association in psychoanalysis.
Libido A basic energy source in all humans that is directed at maximizing pleasure and surviving.
Manifest content The content of a dream, fantasy, or thought as it is remembered and reported in psychoanalysis.
Oedipus/Electra Complex The conflict between mingled love and hate for the same-sex parent experienced by boys and girls between the ages of 3 and 6.
Oral character An oral character structure is characterized by traits like greed, dependency, impatience, restlessness and curiosity.

(psychology) A Freudian term applied to persons who have undergone an unusual degree of oral stimulation during the developmental period and are characterized by an attitude of carefree indifference and by dependence on a mother figure.

Oral stage Associated with incorporation (taking things in), oral pleasure. The child typically knows no boundary between self and other (e.g., mother’s breast), inside and outside, and is defined by a close, dependent link to the mother and nourishment.
Parapraxis A minor error, such as a slip of the tongue, thought to reveal a repressed motive
Phallic character The phallic character traits seen in bipolar fashion include: gregariousness-isolation; courage-timidity; happiness-sadness; brashness-bashfulness; vanity-self contempt; pride-humility; stylishness-plain simplicity; flirtatiousness-heterosexual avoidance; chastity-promiscuity
Phallic stage (psychoanalysis) the third stage in a child’s development when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure
Pleasure principle The demand of the unconscious id for gratification of desires.
Preconscious The memories or feelings that are not part of one’s immediate awareness but that can be recalled through conscious effort
Primary process In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the primary process works to resolve tension created by the pleasure principle. Rather than act on dangerous or unacceptable urges, the id forms a mental image of a desired object to substitute for an urge in order to diffuse tension and anxiety.
Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. As a technique of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis seeks to discover connections among the unconscious components of patients’ mental processes. The analyst’s goal is to help liberate the patient from unexamined or unconscious barriers of transference and resistance, that is, past patterns of relating that are no longer serviceable or that inhibit freedom.
Secondary process in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the secondary process discharges the tension between the ego and the id that is caused by unmet urges or needs. The secondary process functions through the ego’s action of looking for an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id’s primary process.
Super Ego (Tharney) the third structure of the personality to develop; acquired by means of the process of learning; represents the internalization of society’s values, morals and standards; it’s Ego ideal rewards appropriate behaviors and it’s conscience punishes inappropriate or unacceptable behavior; operates on the basis of the Perfection (morality) Principle.
Unconscious the part mind composed mainly of repressed motives and thoughts

Anal character: Overly concerned with cleanliness and meticulous orderly and concerned with minute detail

Anal stage: Associated with expelling things, toilet training, and pleasure from controlling the muscles for bodily elimination. The child typically learns distinctions between inside and outside, self and other, and is able to realize a sense of power and control through these distinctions (and also ways to deal with anger and aggression).

Anxiety: Psychiatry A state of apprehension, uncertainty, and fear resulting from the anticipation of a realistic or fantasized threatening event or situation, often impairing physical and psychological functioning.

Castration complex: 1. In psychoanalytic theory, a child’s fear of injury to the genitals by the parent of the same sex as punishment for unconscious guilt over oedipal feelings. 2. An unconscious fear of injury from those in authority.

Cathexis: to be most aware of and attracted to certain objects in the environment; to invest psychic energy in those objects which correspond to the satisfaction of some need within an organism; the id cathects to any object that seems to gratify any need; the Ego invest energy only in real need satisfying objects; and the Superego invest energy in building standards or right-wrong, good-bad, and moral-immoral

Catharsis: A catharsis is an emotional release. According to psychodynamic theory, this emotional release is linked to a need to release unconscious conflicts. For example, experiencing stress over a work-related situation may cause feelings of frustration and tension. Rather than vent these feelings inappropriately, the individual may instead release these feelings in another way, such as through physical activity or another stress relieving activity.

Compensation: An unconscious psychological mechanism by which one tries to make up for imagined or real deficiencies in personality or physical ability.

Conscious: In psychoanalysis, the component of waking awareness perceptible by a person at any given instant.

Conversion hysteria: A disorder involving the loss or alteration of physical functioning, such as paralysis, voice loss, tunnel vision, or seizures, that is the result of a psychological involvement or need rather than a physical illness or disease. Also called conversion hysteria, conversion reaction.

Defense mechanisms The unconscious psychological process that people develop to relieved anxiety.

Ego: (Tharney) the second structure of the personality to develop; represents rational thought, memory, etc,: attempts to conform to the Id’s mental images into objective reality; operates on the basis of the Reality Principle by means of secondary process

Eros Life Instincts: (Eros) such needs as hunger, thirst, sex, all of which strive to preserve the individual and continue the species

Fixation: in human psychology refers to the state where an individual becomes obsessed with an attachment to another human, animal or inanimate object.

Free association: A psychoanalytic technique in which a patient verbalizes the passing contents of his or her mind without reservation. The verbalized conflicts that emerge constitute resistances that are the basis of the psychoanalyst’s interpretations.

Freudian slip: A verbal mistake that is thought to reveal an unconscious belief, thought, or emotion.

Genital character The un-neurotic character who does not suffer from sexual stasis and is therefore capable of natural self-regulation.

Genital stage he genital stage is the fifth and final stage of Freud’s stages of psychosexual development that begins during puberty. During this stage, the individual develops a strong interest in the opposite sex. If the other psychosexual stages have been successfully completed, the individual will develop into a well-balanced, warm, and caring adult.

Id: (Tharney) the oldest structure of the personality; innate and physiologically based; provides the psychic energy for all three parts of the system; knows only the inner world of subjective experiences; operates on the basis of the Pleasure Principle be means of reflex action and/or primary process

Instinct:
an inborn physiologically base need, the which to fulfill it, and the physic energy to do so; together all the instincts equal the personality’s total energy.

Life Instincts: (Eros) such needs as hunger, thirst, sex, all of which strive to preserve the individual and continue the species.

Death Instincts: (Thanatos) embody the organism’s destructive tendencies and potential for self destructive behavior; the aggressive drive is one’s destructive tendencies directed toward others.

Insight: Understanding, especially an understanding of the motives and reasons behind one’s actions.

Intrapsychic conflict A conflict Existing or taking place within the mind or psyche: intrapsychic conflict.

Introjection: The process of incorporating the characteristics of a person or object unconsciously into one’s psyche, often as a defense mechanism

Latent content The hidden meaning of a dream, fantasy, or thought that can be revealed through interpretation of its images or through free association in psychoanalysis.

Libido: A basic energy source in all humans that is directed at maximizing pleasure and surviving.

Manifest content The content of a dream, fantasy, or thought as it is remembered and reported in psychoanalysis.

Oedipus/Electra Complex: The conflict between mingled love and hate for the same-sex parent experienced by boys and girls between the ages of 3 and 6.

Oral character an oral character structure is characterized by traits like greed, dependency, impatience, restlessness and curiosity.

(psychology) A Freudian term applied to persons who have undergone an unusual degree of oral stimulation during the developmental period and are characterized by an attitude of carefree indifference and by dependence on a mother figure.

Oral stage: Associated with incorporation (taking things in), oral pleasure. The child typically knows no boundary between self and other (e.g., mother’s breast), inside and outside, and is defined by a close, dependent link to the mother and nourishment.

Parapraxis A minor error, such as a slip of the tongue, thought to reveal a repressed motive.

Personality Development: the acquisition of new modes of thinking, feeling, and behaving, as well as new modes of reducing tension.

Phallic character The phallic character traits seen in bipolar fashion include: gregariousness-isolation; courage-timidity; happiness-sadness; brashness-bashfulness; vanity-self contempt; pride-humility; stylishness-plain simplicity; flirtatiousness-heterosexual avoidance; chastity-promiscuity

Phallic stage (psychoanalysis) the third stage in a child’s development when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure

Pleasure principle: The demand of the unconscious id for gratification of desires.

In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the pleasure principle is the driving force of the id that seeks immediate gratification of all needs, wants, and urges. In other words, the pleasure principle strives to fulfill our most basic and primitive urges, including hunger, thirst, anger, and sex. When these needs are not met, the result is a state of anxiety or tension.

Preconscious The memories or feelings that are not part of one’s immediate awareness but that can be recalled through conscious effort

Primary process: In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the primary process works to resolve tension created by the pleasure principle. Rather than act on dangerous or unacceptable urges, the id forms a mental image of a desired object to substitute for an urge in order to diffuse tension and anxiety.

Psychoanalysis: is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud. As a technique of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis seeks to discover connections among the unconscious components of patients’ mental processes. The analyst’s goal is to help liberate the patient from unexamined or unconscious barriers of transference and resistance, that is, past patterns of relating that are no longer serviceable or that inhibit freedom.

Secondary process: in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the secondary process discharges the tension between the ego and the id that is caused by unmet urges or needs. The secondary process functions through the ego’s action of looking for an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id’s primary process.

Super Ego: (Tharney) the third structure of the personality to develop; acquired by means of the process of learning; represents the internalization of society’s values, morals and standards; it’s Ego ideal rewards appropriate behaviors and it’s conscience punishes inappropriate or unacceptable behavior; operates on the basis of the Perfection (morality) Principle.

Theoretical Basis:
the theory is based on the words and actions of patients seen in analytic treatment; Freud published detailed case studies on some of his many patients to illustrate some of his important concepts.

Unconscious the part mind composed mainly of repressed motives and thoughts

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Written by Joseph Eulo

May 28, 2008 at 4:57 am

Posted in PSY101 Handouts

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