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Summary of Freud and his successors who made major modifications to his theory

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Pyschologist

approach 

Theory


Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic Theory holds that the human mind has three parts, or forces: 1) the unconscious mind, which includes the id, with its pleasure principle; 2) the conscious ego, with its reality principle; And 3) the often unconscious superego, with its morality principle.

Freud’s successors

approach to
Psychoanalytic theory

modifications to Psychoanalytic theory 


Carl Jung

Analytical Psychology

The term used for Jung’s approach to psychoanalytic theory

Jung with his analytical psychology, rejected Freud’s emphasis on sexuality, introduced the concept of the collective unconscious with its archetypes, and coined the terms introvert and extrovert


Alfred Adler  

Individual Psychology

The term used for Adler’s approach to psychodynamic theory

Adler, with his Individual psychology, rejected Freud’s emphasis on sexuality and instead emphasized striving for superiority and social interest.


Karen Horney 

Social Psychoanalytic Theory.

The term used for Horney’s approach to psychodynamic theory.

Horney, with her social psychoanalytic theory, rejected Freud’s emphasis on sexuality and his views on women and introduced the concept of basic anxiety



Erik Erickson

Psychosocial Development

Erickson’s twofold process in which individuals’ psychological development proceeds hand in hand with the social interactions they experienced as they go through life.

Erickson put forth his theory of psychosocial development 


Erich Fromm

Social Psychoanalytic Theory

Suggest that personality problems are caused by conflicts between basic human needs and the demands of society.

Fromm emphasized social and cultural influences on personality 

 

 

Chapter 9: Psychodynamic Views: DEFINITIONS

Psychodynamic theorists

Those theorists, including psychoanalytic theorist, who are concerned with understanding and analyzing the inner functioning and processes that yield personality and behavior.

libido

A basic energy source in all humans that is directed at maximizing pleasure and surviving. 

Unconscious mind 

the part mind composed mainly of repressed motives and thoughts

Id 

A basic and primitive part of the mind that is the origin of survival motives and sexual desires, as well as motives for self-destruction and aggression.

(Tharney) the oldest structure of the personality; innate and physiologically based; provides the psychic energy for all three parts of the system; knows only the inner world of subjective experiences; operates on the basis of the Pleasure Principle be means of reflex action and/or primary process

The Pleasure Principle 

The demand of the unconscious id for gratification of desires.

Ego 

The Conscious part of the mind that includes our knowledge, skills, beliefs, and conscious motives.

(Tharney) the second structure of the personality to develop; represents rational thought, memory, etc,: attempts to conform to the Id’s mental images into objective reality; operates on the basis of the Reality Principle by means of secondary process

The Reality Principle 

The principle by which the conscious ego operates as it tries to mediate and balance the demands of the unconscious id and the realities of the environment.

Super Ego

The often unconscious part of the mind that includes the conscience and the ego ideal.

(Tharney) the third structure of the personality to develop; acquired by means of the process of learning; represents the internalization of society’s values, morals and standards; it’s Ego ideal rewards appropriate behaviors and it’s conscience punishes inappropriate or unacceptable behavior; operates on the basis of the Perfection (morality) Principle.

The morality Principle 

the principle by which the superego tries to govern the ego in accord with the conscience and the ego ideal 

Oedipus complex

The conflict between mingled love and hate for the same-sex parent experienced by boys and girls between the ages of 3 and 6.

Psychosexual development 

Freud’s view that child development revolves around sexual desires in one form or another—particularly as in his oral, anal, and phallic stages. 

Analytic psychology 

The term for Jung’s approach to psychoanalytic theory.

Collective unconscious

A set of inherited mental structures that Jung thought were universal and the result of accumulated human experiences across time. 

Archetypes 

Jung’s term for the inherited mental elements in the collective unconscious.

Introverts 

Individuals who prefer to love with their own thoughts and avoid social interactions. 

Extroverts 

Individuals who are highly interested in other people and the social world around them 

Individual psychology 

The term used for Adler’s approach to psychodynamic theory

Social Psychoanalytic Theory

The term used for Horney’s approach to psychodynamic theory.

Basic Anxiety 

The feeling of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world. 

Psychosocial Development 

Erickson’s twofold process in which individuals’ psychological development proceeds hand in hand with the social interactions they experienced as they go through life

 

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Written by Joseph Eulo

May 28, 2008 at 7:19 am

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